United States – North America – Fiches pays

Drapeau United StatesUnited States


Carte United States

Britain’s American colonies broke with the mother country in 1776 and were recognized as the new nation of the United States of America following the Treaty of Paris in 1783. During the 19th and 20th centuries, 37 new states were added to the original 13 as the nation expanded across the North American continent and acquired a number of overseas possessions. The two most traumatic experiences in the nation’s history were the Civil War (1861-65) and the Great Depression of the 1930s. Buoyed by victories in World Wars I and II and the end of the Cold War in 1991, the US remains the world’s most powerful nation state. The economy is marked by steady growth, low unemployment and inflation, and rapid advances in technology.

Population


Habitants

301,139,947 (July 2007 est.)

Groupes ethniques

white 81.7%, black 12.9%, Asian 4.2%, Amerindian and Alaska native 1%, native Hawaiian and other Pacific islander 0.2% (2003 est.)

note: a separate listing for Hispanic is not included because the US Census Bureau considers Hispanic to mean a person of Latin American descent (including persons of Cuban, Mexican, or Puerto Rican origin) living in the US who may be of any race or ethnic group (white, black, Asian, etc.)

Langues

English 82.1%, Spanish 10.7%, other Indo-European 3.8%, Asian and Pacific island 2.7%, other 0.7% (2000 census)

note: Hawaiian is an official language in the state of Hawaii

Espérance de vie

total population: 78 years

male: 75.15 years

female: 80.97 years (2007 est.)

Religions

Protestant 52%, Roman Catholic 24%, Mormon 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim 1%, other 10%, none 10% (2002 est.)

Instruction

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99%

male: 99%

female: 99% (2003 est.)

Gouvernement


Type de gouvernement

Constitution-based federal republic; strong democratic tradition

Indépendance

4 July 1776 (from Great Britain)

Constitution

17 September 1787, effective 4 March 1789

Capitale du pays

Washington, DC

Journée nationale

Independence Day, 4 July (1776)

Système légal

federal court system based on English common law; each state has its own unique legal system, of which all but one (Louisiana’s) is based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts

Economie


PIB

$13.22 trillion (2006 est.)

PIB par habitant

$43,500 (2006 est.)

Population sous le seuil de pauvereté

12% (2004 est.)

Exportations

$1.024 trillion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Réserves en Devises et en Or

$69.19 billion (August 2006 est.)

Dépenses militaires

4.06% (2005 est.)

Taux de croissance

3.4% (2006 est.)

Taux de chômage

4.8% (2006 est.)

Taux d’inflation

2.5% (2006 est.)

Importations

$1.869 trillion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Monnaie

US dollar (USD)

 

Géographie


Emplacement géographique

North America, bordering both the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean, between Canada and Mexico

Climat

mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi River, and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January and February by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains

Superficie

9,826,630 sq km

Ressources naturelles

coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, petroleum, natural gas, timber

Communication


Nombre de cellulaires

219.4 million (2005)

Bornes Internet

195.139 million (2005)

Code Internet

.us

Utilisateurs d’Internet

205.327 million (2005)

Transport


Aéroports

14,858 (2006)

Routes et autoroutes (en km)

6,430,366 km

Rails de train (en km)

226,605 km

Pipelines (en km)

petroleum products 244,620 km; natural gas 548,665 km (2003)

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